Future Probability

When you ask for opinions about future probability, you usually use will + base form or be going to + base form. However, there are other alternatives that are also common in spoken English.

In the table below, you can find a collection of useful phrases and expressions that will help you convey future probabilities with confidence. The table includes various patterns and grammar structures, including modal verbs like “will” and “might,” as well as phrases such as “there’s a good chance” and “I’m sure of it.”

PhrasesGrammar PatternExplanationExamples
will/be going towill/going to + base formExpresses future events or actions without indicating certainty“I will go to the party tomorrow.”
“What do you think they‘re going to do about it?
Definitelywill definitely + base formIndicates a high level of certainty or confidence in a future event“She will definitely win the race. She’s the fastest runner.”
I’m sure be sure of something
be sure + subject + will + base form
Indicates strong confidence or certainty in a future outcomeI’m sure it will rain today. The sky is cloudy.”
I’m bound to be bound to + base formSuggests a high likelihood or inevitability of a future event“If you keep practicing, you’re bound to improve your skills.”
There’s a good chance There’s a good chance + subject + will + base formIndicates a favorable probability or possibility of somethingThere’s a good chance she will get the job. She has relevant experience.”
Fairly likely tobe fairly likely to + base formExpresses a moderate probability or likelihood of a future event“He is fairly likely to pass the exam. He studied hard.”
Mightmight + base formSuggests a possibility or a lower level of certainty in the future“I might go to the concert if I can get tickets.”
There’s a chance something will/won’t happenPhraseIndicates the existence of a possibility or an unlikelihoodThere’s a chance it will rain tomorrow. Bring an umbrella.”
Unlikelybe unlikely that + somebody/ something + will + base formExpresses a low probability or unlikelihood of a future event“It‘s unlikely that he will arrive on time. He’s always late.”
There’s only a small chance that something will happenPhraseIndicates a very low probability or likelihood of somethingThere’s only a small chance they will cancel the event. It’s well-organized.”
Doubt somebody will do somethingdoubt + subject + will + base formExpresses skepticism or lack of belief in a future event“I doubt they will win the competition. Their performance wasn’t strong enough.”
Doubt something will happendoubt it will + base formIndicates skepticism or lack of belief in a future outcome“I doubt it will snow tomorrow. The weather forecast says it’ll be sunny.”
To be not the first person but definitely not the lastbe not the first person + base form, but definitely not the lastImplies a level of certainty or confidence, although not the highest“I’m not the first person to say it, but definitely not the last – he’s talented.”
Bound tobe bound to + base formSuggests a high probability or inevitability of a future event“With her skills, she is bound to succeed in her career.”
Hope soPhraseExpresses desire or optimism about a future outcomeI hope so! I really want to win the competition.”
Think soPhraseExpresses a belief or opinion that something will happenI think so. Based on the evidence, he is likely to be promoted.”
Not think soPhraseExpresses a belief or opinion that something will not happenI don’t think so. It’s unlikely they will change their decision.”

Grammar practice

Speaking practice

  1. Imagine what life will be like in ten years’ time.
  2. Spin the wheel and discuss each statement on the spinning wheel
  3. Express how likely you think each will be.
  4. Negotiate where to place the statement next to the thermometer of probability, with high temperature meaning It’ll definitely … and cold temperatures meaning It definitely won’t … .
  5. Try to use a range of phrases during their negotiations.

Have/Get Something Done

Have/get something done” is a useful English construction that we use when we want to talk about arranging for someone else to do something for us. It’s a way to emphasize that we didn’t do the action ourselves, but rather someone else did it for us.

Services you pay someone else to do for youget/have + object + past participleI get my car washed every week.
She had her hair cut at a fancy salon.
They are getting their house painted next month.
Emphasizes that you pay someone to perform a service for you.
Formal situations, arranging for something to be donehave + object + past participleWe had our website redesigned by a professional agency.
He had his presentation translated into three languages.
We had our legal documents notarized by a certified notary.
Indicates that you arranged for a service to be done by someone else in a formal context.
Things that happen to you, often negative experienceshave + object + past participleShe had her purse stolen while she was shopping.
We had our flight delayed for several hours due to bad weather.
He had his car broken into last night.
Describes events or actions that occur to you, usually negative experiences, without your organization or control.
Negative formdid not have/get + object + past participleI didn’t have my computer repaired.
They didn’t get their house cleaned before the guests arrived.
She didn’t have her dress altered in time for the event.
Expresses the negative form of arranging or paying for a service to be done.
Question form
Simple past
Did + subject + have/get + object + past participle?Did you get your passport renewed?
Did he have his car washed?
Did they have their house repainted?
Forms a question to inquire about arranging or paying for a service to be done.

Grammar practice

Speaking Practice

  1. Get into pairs or small groups.
  2. Take turns being the speaker and the listener.
  3. Open a box and look at the picture carefully
  4. Start speaking about the picture using have/get something done.
  5. Flip the card to see the answer (there are several correct answers, this is just one alternative)

Example: He hasn’t gotten his hair cut yet.


Passive Voice

The passive voice is a grammatical construction used in English to emphasize the object of an action rather than the subject. In a passive sentence, the subject is being acted upon or is receiving the action, while the doer of the action is often placed in a prepositional phrase or omitted altogether.

FormationThe passive voice is formed by using the appropriate form of the verb “to be” (e.g., is, am, are, was, were) followed by the past participle of the main verb.
Object as the subjectIn passive voice sentences, the object of the active sentence becomes the subject of the passive sentence.
Use of “by” (optional)When we want to mention the doer of the action in the passive voice, we use the preposition “by” followed by the doer.
Focus on the action or objectThe passive voice is used when we want to emphasize the action itself or the object being acted upon, rather than the doer of the action.
Common situations for passive voiceThe passive voice is commonly used when the doer of the action is unknown, unimportant, or obvious from the context. It is also used when talking about general truths, scientific facts, or processes.

Grammar Patterns

Tense/FormGrammar PatternExamples
Simple Presentis/are + past participleThe car is washed every week.
Past Simplewas/were + past participleThe book was written by Mark Twain.
Past Continuouswas/were being + past participleThe house was being renovated last month.
Present Perfect Simplehas/have been + past participleThe package has been delivered.
Present Perfect Continuoushas/have been being + past participleThe movie has been being filmed for months.
Past Perfect Simplehad been + past participleThe project had been completed before the deadline.
Modal + Passive Formmodal verb (can/could/may/might/should, etc.) + be + past participleThe document can be signed tomorrow.
Be Going to + Passive Formam/is/are going to be + past participleThe room is going to be cleaned this afternoon.
Gerund + Passive Formbeing + past participleBeing loved by everyone is a great feeling.

Grammar Practice

Speaking Practice


How to Write a Report About a Graph

Sometimes in proficiency exams like IELTS, TOEFL, or Cambridge, you may be asked to describe a graph. But what exactly is a graph?

A graph is a visual representation of data or information. It helps us understand and analyze different trends, patterns, or comparisons in a clear and organized way.

In these exams, you may come across various types of graphs that you’ll need to describe. Let’s take a look at some common types of graphs:

When you talk about graphs in these exams, it’s important to give a clear and short summary of the main things you see.

It’s good to learn how to describe graphs because it helps you understand and explain information better. You can use this skill to study and share data in your writing.

Here you have the basic guidelines to write a report to describe a graph:

What is a report describing a graph?

A report describing a graph is a way to explain and share information about a graph you see. A graph is a picture that shows data or information in a clear and organized way.

When you write a report about a graph, you look at the different parts of the graph and describe what you see. You talk about the important points, like the highest or lowest values, the trends or patterns you notice, or any comparisons between different parts of the graph.

Writing a report describing a graph helps you understand and communicate the information in the graph to others. It’s like telling a story about the graph and what it shows.

Parts of a report describing a graph

1 Introduction

  • Start by explaining what the survey is about, who did it, and when.

Example: “This report tells us about a survey on [topic].

  • Use the passive to do this:

Example: The survey was done in [month/ year]/ by [organization/ person]

2 Main findings

  • Begin with the most important discovery in the first sentence.

Example: “The most important thing we learned from the survey is that [state the discovery].”

  • Use numbers and facts to support your main finding. Use words like “but,” “different,” or “compared to” to talk about contrasting information.
  • If there is more than one topic or discovery, talk about each one in a different paragraph.
  • Use words like “but,” “different,” or “while” to show contrasting information.
  • Use simple words and phrases like “most people,” “almost two-thirds,” or “a lot” to describe numbers.


  • Explain what you think the survey results mean using phrases like “show,” “seem,” or “tell us.”

Example: “The survey results show that [interpretation of findings].”

  • Give a suggestion or advice based on the survey results.

Example: “From these findings, it would be a good idea to [suggested action].”

Now that you know the parts of a report and the steps to follow, let’s see a report sample for the IELTS, TOEFL, Cambridge or Duolingo tests

Survey Question: How many hours per week do you spend following the news?


Useful language to describe a graph

StageVocabulary and Phrases
Introduction– The picture/graph shows…
– This picture/graph has information about…
– The horizontal line is for…
– This picture/graph gives a general idea of…
– This report presents the findings of…
– The purpose of this report/survey was to…
Describing the graph– Overall, we can see that…
– The results show that…
– The graph goes up/down a lot…
– The numbers/values show…
– The graph keeps changing/stays the same/goes up and down.
– The highest point is at…
– The lowest point is at…
– There is a big/small change from… to…
– There is a big/small change from… to…
– The numbers show a pattern of…
Comparisons– Compared to…
– Similarly
– In contrast…
– There is a big difference between…
– There is a big difference between…
– Two things are different:…
– On one side, … On the other side, …
– While…, …; But…, …
Specific data and statistics– According to the graph, the percentage/number is…
– The graph shows that…
– Most/Some/Many…
– Almost two-thirds/half/one-fourth of…
– About/Around…
– It’s important to notice that…
Concluding the report– In conclusion/To finish,…
– Overall, we can say…
– This picture/graph helps us understand…
– From the graph/ diagram/ survey, we can see…
– Based on the information, we can tell…
– This survey/ graph/ diagram suggests that…

Pro tips for writing reports

Make sure that you:

  • wrote a title that shows what the report is about
  • divided the report into clear paragraphs with subheadings
  • did NOT use contractions or informal words
  • Used connectors and formulaic expressions (useful language)
  • Used the correct verb tenses, word forms and punctuation
  • your ideas are easy to read and understand

 Practice time

You have been asked to write a report about a media survey.

Look at the following chart.

Write your report in the comments below.


Comment Adverbs

Adverbs are a type of word that provide more information about verbs, adjectives, or other adverbs in a sentence. They describe how an action is done, when it happens, where it takes place, or to what extent.

This lesson will focus on a specific group of adverbs called “comment adverbs.” These adverbs express the speaker’s attitude, opinion, or comment about the action or situation. They add more depth and emotion to a statement. Let’s explore some common comment adverbs:

Comment AdverbMeaningExample
ActuallyEmphasizes truth or reality“I thought it was expensive, but actually, it’s quite affordable.”
AmazinglyExpresses surprise or astonishment“She sang amazingly well and impressed everyone.”
ApparentlyBased on available evidence, seemingly true“Apparently, he won the lottery, but I’m not sure.”
BasicallySimplifying or summarizing“Basically, it means we have to start over.”
ClearlyIndicates something is evident or understood“He explained the rules clearly, so we understood.”
GenerallyBroadly or typically“Generally, people enjoy going to the beach in summer.”
HopefullyExpresses positive expectation or desire“Hopefully, we’ll have a successful event tomorrow.”
LuckilySomething positive happened by chance“I forgot my keys, but luckily, I found a spare set.”
PersonallyIndicates a personal opinion or experience“Personally, I think it’s the best movie I’ve seen.”
ObviouslySomething is easily understood or apparent“He didn’t study, so obviously, he failed the test.”
SadlyExpresses sorrow or regret“Sadly, she couldn’t attend the party due to illness.”
SurprisinglyHighlights something unexpected“Surprisingly, the cake tasted better than it looked.”
UnfortunatelySomething undesirable or negative“Unfortunately, the concert was cancelled due to rain.”

Grammar practice 1

Grammar practice 2

Speaking Practice

  1. Get into pairs or small groups.
  2. Take turns being the speaker and the listener.
  3. Spin the wheel to see a question.
  4. Start speaking about the topic on the wheel.
  5. Try to use a comment adverb every time you share your opinion.

Present Perfect and Adverbs

Present Perfect Review

The present perfect tense is a verb form used to connect past actions or events to the present. It indicates that something started in the past and has a relevance or connection to the present moment. In other words, it emphasizes the relationship between past actions and their impact on the current situation.

Grammar pattern
Form: Subject + have/has + past participle (3rd form)
Expressing Experiences“I have visited Paris several times.”
Unfinished Actions“They have studied English for three years.”
Actions with Relevance“She has lost her keys.”
Recent Past“He has just arrived home.”

Adverbs used with Present Perfect

There are some adverbs that we can use with present perfect to make emphasis or add additional details.

AlreadyBefore the present time or earlier than expected“I have already finished my homework.”
EvenEmphasizing a surprising or unexpected situation“I’ve been very busy. I haven’t even had time to have lunch.”
EverAt any time in the past or in one’s life“Have you ever traveled abroad?”
JustReferring to a very recent past or a short time ago“He’s just come back from Brazil.”
LatelyIn the recent past or during a recent period“I haven’t seen him lately.”
NeverNot at any time in the past or in one’s life“I have never been to Australia.”
OnlyIndicating exclusivity or emphasizing limitations“I’ve only done the first year of my course.”
RecentlyIn the near past or not long ago“She has recently started a new job.”
So farDescribing the extent of an action up to the present time“They have visited three countries so far.”
StillIndicating that a situation or action is continuing or ongoing“I still haven’t found what I’m looking for
YetExpressing an action or event expected to happen but hasn’t occurred until now“They haven’t finished their project yet.”

Grammar practice

Speaking practice


Future Forms

For High-Intermediate English learners

There are different ways of talking about the future in English. While one structure may be preferred for certain meanings, in many cases more than one structure can be used with little or no change of meaning.

Future FormGrammar PatternMeaningExplanationExamples
Present be going tosubject + be + going to + base verbPlanned or intended actions in the futureUsed when something is already decided or plannedI am going to visit my grandparents next weekend.
Willsubject + will + base verbSpontaneous decisions, predictions, promises, or offersUsed for decisions made at the moment or predictions/promisesIt’s hot here. I will open the window.
Present Continuoussubject + am/is/are + present participle (-ing form)Fixed plans or arrangements in the near futureUsed for actions already planned or arrangedI am meeting my friend for dinner tonight.
Might/Maysubject + might/may + base verbPossibilities or uncertain future eventsUsed when there is a possibility, but uncertaintyI might go to the party if I finish my work early.
Future Continuoussubject + will be + present participle (-ing form)Ongoing actions or events in the futureUsed to describe actions happening at a specific timeThey will be watching a movie this time next week.

Grammar Practice

Speaking Practice


Reported Speech

Reported speech, also known as indirect speech, is used to report what someone else said.

It’s different from direct speech, which is when we repeat the exact words that someone else said.

In reported speech, we need to change the tense and pronouns to match the new speaker and the time of reporting. Here’s a table that summarizes the changes:

Direct SpeechReported SpeechExample
Present SimplePast Simple“I like pizza,” said John.
John said that he liked pizza.
Present ContinuousPast Continuous“I am playing soccer,” said Emily.
Emily said that she was playing soccer.
Present PerfectPast Perfect“I have visited France,” said Kate.
Kate said that she had visited France.
Present Perfect Cont.Past Perfect Continuous“I have been studying Spanish,” said Tom.
Tom said that he had been studying Spanish.
Past SimplePast Perfect“I went to the store,” said Sarah.
Sarah said that she had gone to the store.
Past ContinuousPast Perfect Continuous“I was watching TV,” said Mike.
Mike said that he had been watching TV.
Past PerfectPast Perfect“I had finished my homework,” said Jane.
Jane said that she had finished her homework.
Past Perfect Cont.Past Perfect Continuous“I had been studying for hours,” said Alex.
Alex said that he had been studying for hours.
Future SimpleConditional (would) + Infinitive“I will come to the party,” said Peter.
Peter said that he would come to the party.
Future ContinuousConditional Continuous (would + be + Ving“I will be working late,” said Mark.
Mark said that he would be working late.
Future PerfectConditional Perfect (would + have + PP)“I will have finished by then,” said Anna.
Anna said that she would have finished by then.
Future Perfect Cont.Conditional Perfect Cont. (would + have + been + Ving)“I will have been studying for 4 hours,” said Sam.
Here/ThereChanged according to the new location“I live here,” said Lisa.
Lisa said that she lived there.
Personal PronounsChanged according to the new speaker“I love this song,” said Tim.
Tim said that he loved that song.

Grammar Practice

Speaking Practice

  1. Open the box
  2. Look at the picture
  3. Answer the following questions using reported speech

What did they say?/ What did they ask?


Talk for a minute


  1. Get into pairs or small groups.
  2. Take turns being the speaker and the listener.
  3. Choose a topic card.
  4. Start speaking about the topic on the card for one minute. Try to say as much as you can.
  5. The listener should pay attention and not interrupt the speaker.
  6. When one minute is up, switch roles. The listener becomes the speaker and vice versa.
  7. Repeat the process until both of you have spoken about different topics.

Remember, the goal is to practice speaking and listening skills, so don’t worry about making mistakes. Enjoy the activity and encourage each other’s efforts!

Click on the arrows < > to see the speaking cards

Speaking cards 👇

Click the arrow > to see the first card


Past Perfect Simple

The past perfect simple is used to describe an action that was completed before another action in the past.

Grammar PatternMeaningExamples
Subject + had +
past participle (3rd form)
Expresses an action completed
before another action or time in the past.
I had already eaten when he arrived.
She had studied English before she moved to London.
They had finished their work before the deadline.

In order to master this verb tense it is crucial that you know by heart the past participle of the most used irregular verbs. Below you can see a list of the basic irregular verbs that intermediate/ high-intermediate learners MUST know already.

Base formSimple past
(2nd form)
Past participle
(3rd form)

Grammar practice

Speaking practice

  1. Choose a box
  2. Open the box
  3. Each team member will complete the sentence using their own ideas
  4. Share your sentence with your classmates