“Have/get something done” is a useful English construction that we use when we want to talk about arranging for someone else to do something for us. It’s a way to emphasize that we didn’t do the action ourselves, but rather someone else did it for us.
Services you pay someone else to do for you
get/have + object + past participle
I getmy carwashed every week. She hadher hair cut at a fancy salon. They are getting their housepainted next month.
Emphasizes that you pay someone to perform a service for you.
Formal situations, arranging for something to be done
have + object + past participle
We hadour websiteredesigned by a professional agency. He had his presentationtranslated into three languages. We hadour legal documents notarized by a certified notary.
Indicates that you arranged for a service to be done by someone else in a formal context.
Things that happen to you, often negative experiences
have + object + past participle
She hadher pursestolen while she was shopping. We hadour flightdelayed for several hours due to bad weather. He had his carbroken into last night.
Describes events or actions that occur to you, usually negative experiences, without your organization or control.
did not have/get + object + past participle
I didn’t havemy computerrepaired. They didn’t gettheir housecleaned before the guests arrived. She didn’t have her dress altered in time for the event.
Expresses the negative form of arranging or paying for a service to be done.
Question form Simple past
Did + subject + have/get + object + past participle?
Did you getyour passportrenewed? Did he have his carwashed? Did they havetheir house repainted?
Forms a question to inquire about arranging or paying for a service to be done.
Get into pairs or small groups.
Take turns being the speaker and the listener.
Open a box and look at the picture carefully
Start speaking about the picture using have/get something done.
Flip the card to see the answer (there are several correct answers, this is just one alternative)
The passive voice is a grammatical construction used in English to emphasize the object of an action rather than the subject. In a passive sentence, the subject is being acted upon or is receiving the action, while the doer of the action is often placed in a prepositional phrase or omitted altogether.
The passive voice is formed by using the appropriate form of the verb “to be” (e.g., is, am, are, was, were) followed by the past participle of the main verb.
Object as the subject
In passive voice sentences, the object of the active sentence becomes the subject of the passive sentence.
Use of “by” (optional)
When we want to mention the doer of the action in the passive voice, we use the preposition “by” followed by the doer.
Focus on the action or object
The passive voice is used when we want to emphasize the action itself or the object being acted upon, rather than the doer of the action.
Common situations for passive voice
The passive voice is commonly used when the doer of the action is unknown, unimportant, or obvious from the context. It is also used when talking about general truths, scientific facts, or processes.
is/are + past participle
The car is washed every week.
was/were + past participle
The book was written by Mark Twain.
was/were being + past participle
The house was being renovated last month.
Present Perfect Simple
has/have been + past participle
The package has been delivered.
Present Perfect Continuous
has/have been being + past participle
The movie has been being filmed for months.
Past Perfect Simple
had been + past participle
The project had been completed before the deadline.
Modal + Passive Form
modal verb (can/could/may/might/should, etc.) + be + past participle
Sometimes in proficiency exams like IELTS, TOEFL, or Cambridge, you may be asked to describe a graph. But what exactly is a graph?
A graph is a visual representation of data or information. It helps us understand and analyze different trends, patterns, or comparisons in a clear and organized way.
In these exams, you may come across various types of graphs that you’ll need to describe. Let’s take a look at some common types of graphs:
When you talk about graphs in these exams, it’s important to give a clear and short summary of the main things you see.
It’s good to learn how to describe graphs because it helps you understand and explain information better. You can use this skill to study and share data in your writing.
Here you have the basic guidelines to write a report to describe a graph:
What is a report describing a graph?
A report describing a graph is a way to explain and share information about a graph you see. A graph is a picture that shows data or information in a clear and organized way.
When you write a report about a graph, you look at the different parts of the graph and describe what you see. You talk about the important points, like the highest or lowest values, the trends or patterns you notice, or any comparisons between different parts of the graph.
Writing a report describing a graph helps you understand and communicate the information in the graph to others. It’s like telling a story about the graph and what it shows.
Parts of a report describing a graph
Start by explaining what the survey is about, who did it, and when.
Example: “This report tells us about a survey on [topic].
Use the passive to do this:
Example: The survey was done in [month/ year]/ by [organization/ person]
2 Main findings
Begin with the most important discovery in the first sentence.
Example: “The most important thing we learned from the survey is that [state the discovery].”
Use numbers and facts to support your main finding. Use words like “but,” “different,” or “compared to” to talk about contrasting information.
If there is more than one topic or discovery, talk about each one in a different paragraph.
Use words like “but,” “different,” or “while” to show contrasting information.
Use simple words and phrases like “most people,” “almost two-thirds,” or “a lot” to describe numbers.
Explain what you think the survey results mean using phrases like “show,” “seem,” or “tell us.”
Example: “The survey results show that [interpretation of findings].”
Give a suggestion or advice based on the survey results.
Example: “From these findings, it would be a good idea to [suggested action].”
Now that you know the parts of a report and the steps to follow, let’s see a report sample for the IELTS, TOEFL, Cambridge or Duolingo tests
Survey Question: How many hours per week do you spend following the news?
Useful language to describe a graph
Vocabulary and Phrases
– The picture/graph shows… – This picture/graph has information about… – The horizontal line is for… – This picture/graph gives a general idea of… – This report presents the findings of… – The purpose of this report/survey was to…
Describing the graph
– Overall, we can see that… – The results show that… – The graph goes up/down a lot… – The numbers/values show… – The graph keeps changing/stays the same/goes up and down. – The highest point is at… – The lowest point is at… – There is a big/small change from… to… – There is a big/small change from… to… – The numbers show a pattern of…
– Compared to… – Similarly – In contrast… – There is a big difference between… – There is a big difference between… – Two things are different:… – On one side, … On the other side, … – While…, …; But…, …
Specific data and statistics
– According to the graph, the percentage/number is… – The graph shows that… – Most/Some/Many… – Almost two-thirds/half/one-fourth of… – About/Around… – It’s important to notice that…
Concluding the report
– In conclusion/To finish,… – Overall, we can say… – This picture/graph helps us understand… – From the graph/ diagram/ survey, we can see… – Based on the information, we can tell… – This survey/ graph/ diagram suggests that…
Pro tips for writing reports
Make sure that you:
wrote a title that shows what the report is about
divided the report into clear paragraphs with subheadings
did NOT use contractions or informal words
Used connectors and formulaic expressions (useful language)
Used the correct verb tenses, word forms and punctuation
your ideas are easy to read and understand
You have been asked to write a report about a media survey.
Adverbs are a type of word that provide more information about verbs, adjectives, or other adverbs in a sentence. They describe how an action is done, when it happens, where it takes place, or to what extent.
This lesson will focus on a specific group of adverbs called “comment adverbs.” These adverbs express the speaker’s attitude, opinion, or comment about the action or situation. They add more depth and emotion to a statement. Let’s explore some common comment adverbs:
Emphasizes truth or reality
“I thought it was expensive, but actually, it’s quite affordable.”
Expresses surprise or astonishment
“She sang amazingly well and impressed everyone.”
Based on available evidence, seemingly true
“Apparently, he won the lottery, but I’m not sure.”
Simplifying or summarizing
“Basically, it means we have to start over.”
Indicates something is evident or understood
“He explained the rules clearly, so we understood.”
Broadly or typically
“Generally, people enjoy going to the beach in summer.”
Expresses positive expectation or desire
“Hopefully, we’ll have a successful event tomorrow.”
Something positive happened by chance
“I forgot my keys, but luckily, I found a spare set.”
Indicates a personal opinion or experience
“Personally, I think it’s the best movie I’ve seen.”
Something is easily understood or apparent
“He didn’t study, so obviously, he failed the test.”
Expresses sorrow or regret
“Sadly, she couldn’t attend the party due to illness.”
Highlights something unexpected
“Surprisingly, the cake tasted better than it looked.”
Something undesirable or negative
“Unfortunately, the concert was cancelled due to rain.”
Grammar practice 1
Grammar practice 2
Get into pairs or small groups.
Take turns being the speaker and the listener.
Spin the wheel to see a question.
Start speaking about the topic on the wheel.
Try to use a comment adverb every time you share your opinion.
There are different ways of talking about the future in English. While one structure may be preferred for certain meanings, in many cases more than one structure can be used with little or no change of meaning.
Present be going to
subject + be + going to + base verb
Planned or intended actions in the future
Used when something is already decided or planned
I am going to visit my grandparents next weekend.
subject + will + base verb
Spontaneous decisions, predictions, promises, or offers
Used for decisions made at the moment or predictions/promises
The past perfect simple is used to describe an action that was completed before another action in the past.
Subject + had + past participle (3rd form)
Expresses an action completed before another action or time in the past.
I had already eaten when he arrived. She had studied English before she moved to London. They had finished their work before the deadline.
In order to master this verb tense it is crucial that you know by heart the past participle of the most used irregular verbs. Below you can see a list of the basic irregular verbs that intermediate/ high-intermediate learners MUST know already.
Simple past (2nd form)
Past participle (3rd form)
Choose a box
Open the box
Each team member will complete the sentence using their own ideas
The simple past and past continuous are both verb tenses used to describe actions or events that occurred in the past. Here’s a table that explains the differences between the two tenses and provides examples of each:
[Base Form + –ed / Irregular Verb Past Form]
Used to describe a completed action or event in the past.
She studied for three hours yesterday. He played soccer with his friends last weekend. They traveled to Europe last summer. I cooked dinner for my family last night.
[Past form of “be” (was/were) + Present Participle (-ing)]
Used to describe an ongoing action or event that was happening at a specific time in the past.
She was studying for three hours yesterday. He was playing soccer with his friends when it started to rain. They were traveling to Europe when they heard about the hurricane. I was cooking dinner when my friend called me.
It’s important to note that the simple past is formed by adding –ed to regular verbs, or using the second form of irregular verbs,
The past continuous is formed by using the verb “to be” in the past tense (was/were) and adding the present participle (-ing) of the main verb.
Here’s a table with the spelling rules of the present participle (-ing verbs):
Add -ing to most verbs
talk → talking
If the verb ends in -e, drop the e and add -ing
dance → dancing
If the verb ends in -ie, change -ie to -y and add -ing
lie → lying
If the verb ends in a single consonant after a single vowel, double the consonant and add -ing
run → running
If the verb ends in -c, change -c to -ck and add -ing
picnic → picnicking
If the verb ends in a vowel followed by -l, double the -l and add -ing
travel → travelling
If the verb ends in -w, -x, or -z, add -ing without any changes
Are you an English learner looking to improve your English skills online?
Look no further! Here I’ll share tips and tricks to help you succeed in your language-learning journey.
The following tips can help you maximize your online classes so you can achieve your learning goals and become better at speaking English.
1. Set a schedule and stick to it ⏰
Plan out your study time, and attend online classes on time. Consistency is key to learning a new language.
2 Practice regularly 💪
The more you practice, the more confident you will become in your language skills. Look for opportunities to practice during your class, such as actively participating in the breakout room activities.
3 Improve your listening skills 👂🔈
Listen to your English teacher and classmates and try to guess the meaning of new words from context. Don’t use your translator to translate every single new word you hear. Try to listen to different accents and dialects to improve your comprehension.
4 Improve your reading skills 👀 📚
Read English language materials such as books, articles, and news stories to improve your reading comprehension and vocabulary.
5 Participate in class discussions 🗣️
Don’t be afraid to speak up and participate in class discussions. This will help you to practice your speaking and listening skills and will also give you the chance to learn from your classmates.
6 Take notes 📝
Taking notes during online classes can help you remember important information and improve your writing skills.
7 Ask for feedback 🙋
Ask your teacher for feedback on your language skills and areas that need improvement. Use this feedback to set goals and work on areas that need improvement.
8 Use online resources 💻
Take advantage of online resources such as grammar websites, vocabulary lists, and language learning apps to supplement your class work and improve your language skills.
9 Connect with your classmates 🤝
Connect with your classmates outside of class to practice your language skills and build your confidence. You can creat a Whatsapp/ Telegram/ Facebook/ Wechat study group.
10 Be patient and persistent 🧘
Learning a new language takes time and effort. Be patient with yourself and persistent in your efforts to improve your language skills.
💡 Finally, learning a new language can be challenging, and it’s important to be kind to yourself during the process. Making mistakes is a natural part of learning, and it’s okay to not get everything right the first time.
🏆 Instead of being hard on yourself, try to focus on the progress you’re making and the improvements you’re seeing in your language skills. Celebrate your successes and don’t be afraid to ask for help when you need it.
🗵 Remember, everyone makes mistakes, even native speakers!
😊 By being kind to yourself and embracing your mistakes as opportunities for growth, you’ll be able to learn English with greater ease and confidence
Can you think of other tips to succeed in your online classes? Share your comments below ⬇️
The third conditional is a complex grammar structure used in English to talk about hypothetical or imaginary situations that could have happened in the past.
if + past perfect, would/could + have + past participle
Understanding the differences between “would have” and “could have” in the third conditional can be very challenging for English learners.
In this mini-lesson I’ll break down the grammar patterns and meanings of “would have” and “could have” in the third conditional, and provide examples to help you understand their usage.
“Would have” is used to describe a hypothetical or imaginary situation in the past that did not actually happen. It implies that the result was not possible or likely to happen, regardless of what might have been done. For example:
If I had studied harder, I would have passed the exam.
If I had known you were coming, I would have baked a cake.
In both examples, “would have” suggests that the speaker didn’t pass the exam or bake a cake because they didn’t study hard enough or didn’t know about the visit, respectively.
On the other hand, “could have” is used to suggest that the result was possible or could have happened if something had been done differently. For example:
If I had studied harder, I could have passed the exam.
If I had known you were coming, I could have baked a cake.
In both examples, “could have” suggests that passing the exam or baking a cake was a possibility if the speaker had done something differently, such as studying harder or knowing about the visit in advance.
To make it easier to understand, let’s compare the grammar patterns and meanings of “would have” and “could have” in the third conditional in a table:
Hypothetical or imaginary situation in the past that did not actually happen. Implies that the result was not possible or likely to happen, regardless of what might have been done.
would have Third Conditional
If I had arrived earlier, I would have caught the train. If he had studied harder, he would have passed the exam.
Suggests that the result was possible or could have happened if something had been done differently.
could have Third Conditional
If I had known you were coming, I could have baked a cake. If she had practiced more, she could havewon the competition.
In conclusion, mastering the differences between “would have” and “could have” in the third conditional is crucial for communicating effectively in English. By using these two modal verbs correctly, you can express regret, speculate about what could have happened, and talk about hypothetical situations in the past with greater precision and accuracy.
If you are still confused, you can find an easy explanation in your first language 🇪🇸 🇵🇹 🇨🇳 🇷🇺 🇺🇦 🇹🇷 🇯🇵👇
Situación hipotética o imaginaria en el pasado que no ocurrió en realidad. Implica que el resultado no era posible o probable que sucediera, independientemente de lo que se hubiera hecho.
would + have + participio pasado
Si hubiera llegado antes, habría cogido el tren. Si hubiera estudiado más, habría aprobado el examen.
Sugiere que el resultado era posible o podría haber sucedido si algo se hubiera hecho de manera diferente.
could + have + participio pasado
Si hubiera sabido que venías, podría haber horneado un pastel. Si ella hubiera practicado más, podría haber ganado la competición.
Situação hipotética ou imaginária no passado que não ocorreu na realidade. Implica que o resultado não era possível ou provável que acontecesse, independentemente do que tivesse sido feito.
condicional perfeito (would + have + particípio passado)
Se eu tivesse chegado mais cedo, teria pego o trem. Se eu tivesse estudado mais, teria passado no exame.
Sugere que o resultado era possível ou poderia ter acontecido se algo tivesse sido feito de forma diferente.
condicional perfeito (could + have + particípio passado)
Se eu soubesse que você vinha, poderia ter assado um bolo. Se ela tivesse praticado mais, poderia ter ganhado a competição.
如果 + 过去完成时，would + have + 过去分词
如果 + 过去完成时，could + have + 过去分词
Гипотетическая или вымышленная ситуация в прошлом, которая на самом деле не произошла. Подразумевает, что результат не был возможен или вероятен, независимо от того, что было сделано.
Если + прошедшее совершенное время, would + have + прошедшее причастие
Если бы я пришёл раньше, я бы успел на поезд. Если бы я больше учился, я бы сдал экзамен.
Подразумевает, что результат был возможен или мог произойти, если бы что-то было сделано по-другому.
Если + прошедшее совершенное время, could + have + прошедшее причастие
Если бы я знал, что ты идёшь, я мог бы испечь торт. Если бы она больше тренировалась, она могла бы выиграть соревнование.
Гіпотетична або уявна ситуація в минулому, яка насправді не трапилася. Підтверджує, що результат не був можливим або ймовірним, незалежно від того, що було зроблено.
якщо + минулий доконаний час, would + have + минулий дієприкметник
Якби я прийшов раніше, я би встиг на потяг. Якби я більше вчився, я би здав іспит.
Підтверджує, що результат був можливим або міг статися, якби щось було зроблено по-іншому.
якщо + минулий доконаний час, could + have + минулий дієприкметник
Якби я знав, що ти йдеш, я міг би спекти торт. Якби вона більше тренувалася, вона могла б виграти змагання.
Gerçekleşmeyen hayali ya da varsayımsal bir durum. Sonucun gerçekleşmesinin mümkün ya da olası olmadığını ima eder.
Eğer + geçmiş zaman, would + have + V3
Eğer önceden gelmiş olsaydım, trene yetişirdim. Daha fazla çalışmış olsaydım, sınavı geçerdim.
Sonucun gerçekleşmesinin mümkün ya da olası olduğunu, farklı bir şey yapılsaydı gerçekleşebileceğini ima eder.
Eğer + geçmiş zaman, could + have + V3
Sen geldiğini söyleseydin, bir pasta yapabilirdim. Daha fazla çalışmış olsaydı, yarışmayı kazanabilirdi.